# Over and Under-allocated Overhead Managerial Accounting

Using a predetermined rate, companies can assign overhead costs to production when they assign direct materials and direct labor costs. Without a predetermined rate, companies do not know the costs of production until the end of the month or even later when bills arrive. For example, the electric bill for July will probably not arrive until August. If Creative Printers had used actual overhead, the company would not have determined the costs of its July work until August.

• If overhead is underapplied, meaning you have too little overheard in cost of goods sold, add the amount that is underapplied.
• Financial costs that fall into the manufacturing overhead
category are comprised of property taxes, audit and legal fees, and insurance
expenses that apply to your manufacturing unit.
• Companies use these estimates to establish the standard overhead rate for each unit produced during a period.
• The standard overhead rate is calculated by dividing budgeted overhead at a given level of production (known as normal capacity) by the level of activity required for that particular level of production.
• One group  is applying overhead based on the actual activity and the predetermined overhead rate.
• The allocation base could be direct labor hours, machine hours, or any other measure that is deemed appropriate for the business.

Then we multiplied the predetermined overhead rate by the actual activity to calculate applied overhead. First, we calculated the predetermined overhead rate by dividing estimated overhead by estimated activity. Every facility needs power, insurance, supplies, and employees who work behind the scenes and not directly in production.

ABC Co. uses the following journal entries to record those overheads. However, if the actual overheads exceed the applied overheads, companies must treat them as over-applied. In that case, the journal entries for the adjustment will be the opposite of under-applied. Companies with a continuous production cycle can apply it to the inventory produced. However, it does not entail creating different journal entries for applied overheads.

## Journal entry for overapplied overhead

Once they do so, they use the standard overhead rate to calculate the applied overheads. Actual overhead are the manufacturing costs other than direct materials and direct labor. Since the overhead costs are not directly traceable to products, the overhead costs must be allocated, assigned, or applied to goods produced.

Actual overhead is the amount of indirect factory costs that are actually incurred by a business. Examples of actual overhead are the salaries of production supervisors, depreciation on production equipment, and the upkeep of manufacturing facilities and equipment. Actual overhead costs are accumulated into one or more cost pools, from which they are assigned to cost objects. In this how to start a profitable vending machine business case, the manufacturing overhead is underapplied by \$1,000 (\$11,000 – \$10,000) as the applied overhead cost is \$1,000 less than the actual overhead cost that has occurred during the accounting period. On the other hand, the company can make the journal entry for underapplied overhead by debiting the cost of goods sold account and crediting the manufacturing overhead account.

• This is done during the year as work is completed using the predetermined overhead rate and actual activity.
• Once you have determined if overhead is underapplied or overapplied, Calculate the difference between applied overhead and actual overhead.
• Estimated overhead is decided before the accounting year
begins in order to budget and plan for the coming year.
• The overhead cost applied to the jobs was too high—it was overapplied.
• It is likely that the amounts determined for standard overhead costs will differ from what actually occurs.

The total variable overhead cost variance is also found by combining the variable overhead rate variance and the variable overhead efficiency variance. By showing the total variable overhead cost variance as the sum of the two components, management can better analyze the two variances and enhance decision-making. •Some overhead costs, like factory
building depreciation, are fixed costs. If the volume of goods
produced varies from month to month, the actual rate varies from
month to month, even though the total cost is constant from month
to month.

We need to compare the actual overhead incurred to the applied overhead that is currently attached to our jobs. We need to see if we applied too much overhead or too little overhead to our jobs. From a management perspective, the analysis of applied overhead (and underapplied overhead) is an integral part of financial planning & analysis (FP&A) methods. By analyzing how costs are assigned to certain products or projects, management teams can make better-informed capital budgeting and financial-related operations decisions.

## Products

At the end of the year, Stellar Toys will need to reconcile its applied overhead with its actual overhead. In this case, there is an overhead variance of \$10,000 (\$210,000 actual – \$200,000 applied), meaning Stellar Toys has under-applied overhead. It will need to adjust its financial records to account for this difference. By the end of the year, Stellar Toys finds that it has actually incurred \$210,000 in overhead costs. Manufacturing overhead is comprised of indirect costs
related to manufacturing products. It is an essential part of manufacturing
accounting and as such, it should be one of the key factors in determining the

In turn, with better analytics, management can achieve better capital use efficiency and return on invested capital, thereby increasing business valuation. The above journal entries will conclude the accounting for actual and applied overheads for ABC Co. Usually, these may include expenses relating to various areas within a business. However, it does not represent the actual overheads companies have incurred. Companies account for both types of overheads during different stages in the accounting process.

## Estimated vs. Applied vs. Actual Overhead

For example, a business applies overhead to its products based on standard overhead application rate of \$25 per hour of machine time used. Since the total amount of machine hours used in the accounting period was 5,000 hours, the company applied \$125,000 of overhead to the units produced in that period. For example, on December 31, the company ABC which is a manufacturing company finds out that it has incurred the actual overhead cost of \$9,500 during the accounting period.

This is similar to the predetermined overhead rate used previously. The standard overhead rate is calculated by dividing budgeted overhead at a given level of production (known as normal capacity) by the level of activity required for that particular level of production. Actual overhead costs are any indirect costs related to completing
the job or making a product. Next, we look at how we correct our
records when the actual and our applied (or estimated) overhead do
not match (which they almost never match!). Let’s assume that a company expects to have \$800,000 of overhead costs in the upcoming year. It also expects that it will have its normal 16,000 of production machine hours during the upcoming year.

Connie’s Candy used fewer direct labor hours and less variable overhead to produce 1,000 candy boxes (units). Once assigned to a cost object, assigned overhead is then considered part of the full cost of that cost object. Recording the full cost of a cost object is considered appropriate under the major accounting frameworks, such as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards. Under these frameworks, applied overhead is included in the financial statements of a business. Once you have determined if overhead is underapplied or overapplied, Calculate the difference between applied overhead and actual overhead. This is the amount that you must adjust cost of goods sold to bring it to the actual cost.

Other expenses may have features that allow companies to attribute them to that unit. In this book, we assume companies transfer overhead balances to Cost of Goods Sold. We leave the more complicated procedure of allocating overhead balances to inventory accounts to textbooks on cost accounting. The main difference between fixed and variable overhead is
that variable overhead depends on the volume of production while fixed overhead
is always the same.

For instance, utility costs might rise due to an increase in energy prices, or the factory rent might increase. Estimated overhead is decided before the accounting year
begins in order to budget and plan for the coming year. This is done as an
educated guess based on the actual overhead costs of previous years. The fixed factory overhead variance represents the difference between the actual fixed overhead and the applied fixed overhead. One variance determines if too much or too little was spent on fixed overhead. The other variance computes whether or not actual production was above or below the expected production level.

Hopefully, the differences will be not be significant at the end of the accounting year. The amount of overhead applied is usually based on a standard application rate that is only changed at fairly long intervals. Consequently, the amount of applied overhead may differ from the actual amount of overhead incurred by a business in any individual accounting period.